LKH is an effective implementation of the Lin-Kernighan heuristic for solving the traveling salesman problem. Computational experiments have shown that LKH is highly effective. Even though the algorithm is approximate, optimal solutions are produced with an impressively high frequency. LKH has produced optimal solutions for all solved problems we have been able to obtain; including a 85,900-city instance (at the time of writing, the largest nontrivial instance solved to optimality). Furthermore, the algorithm has improved the best known solutions for a series of large-scale instances with unknown optima, among these a 1,904,711-city instance (World TSP).

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  1. Accorsi, Luca; Lodi, Andrea; Vigo, Daniele: Guidelines for the computational testing of machine learning approaches to vehicle routing problems (2022)
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  4. Jiang, Li; Zang, Xiaoning; Dong, Junfeng; Liang, Changyong; Mladenovic, Nenad: A variable neighborhood search for the last-mile delivery problem during major infectious disease outbreak (2022)
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  6. Taillard, Éric D.: A linearithmic heuristic for the travelling salesman problem (2022)
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  8. Cohen, Eldan; Beck, J. Christopher: Heavy-tails and randomized restarting beam search in goal-oriented neural sequence decoding (2021)
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  16. Bertagnon, Alessandro: Constraint programming algorithms for route planning exploiting geometrical information (2020)
  17. Bortfeldt, Andreas; Yi, Junmin: The split delivery vehicle routing problem with three-dimensional loading constraints (2020)
  18. Cho, Doo-Hyun; Jang, Dae-Sung; Choi, Han-Lim: Memetic algorithm-based path generation for multiple Dubins vehicles performing remote tasks (2020)
  19. Glover, Fred; Kochenberger, Gary; Ma, Moses; Du, Yu: Quantum bridge analytics II: QUBO-plus, network optimization and combinatorial chaining for asset exchange (2020)
  20. Sahai, Tuhin: Dynamical systems theory and algorithms for NP-hard problems (2020)

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