Status of the TOUGH-FLAC simulator and recent applications related to coupled fluid flow and crustal deformations. This paper presents recent advancement in and applications of TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for multiphase fluid flow and geomechanics. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator links the TOUGH family multiphase fluid and heat transport codes with the commercial FLAC3D geomechanical simulator. The most significant new TOUGH-FLAC development in the past few years is a revised architecture, enabling a more rigorous and tight coupling procedure with improved computational efficiency. The applications presented in this paper are related to modeling of crustal deformations caused by deep underground fluid movements and pressure changes as a result of both industrial activities (the In Salah CO2 Storage Project and the Geysers Geothermal Field) and natural events (the 1960s Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm). Finally, the paper provides some perspectives on the future of TOUGH-FLAC in light of its applicability to practical problems and the need for high-performance computing capabilities for field-scale problems, such as industrial-scale CO2 storage and enhanced geothermal systems. It is concluded that despite some limitations to fully adapting a commercial code such as FLAC3D for some specialized research and computational needs, TOUGH-FLAC is likely to remain a pragmatic simulation approach, with an increasing number of users in both academia and industry.

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  1. Suh, Hyoung Suk; Sun, WaiChing: Asynchronous phase field fracture model for porous media with thermally non-equilibrated constituents (2021)
  2. Beck, M.; Rinaldi, A. P.; Flemisch, B.; Class, H.: Accuracy of fully coupled and sequential approaches for modeling hydro- and geomechanical processes (2020)
  3. Benisch, Katharina; Wang, Wenqing; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian: The OGS-Eclipse code for simulation of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes in the subsurface (2020)
  4. Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny: Finite volume modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes with application to brine migration in salt (2020)
  5. Wangen, Magnus; Halvorsen, Gotskalk: A three-dimensional analytical solution for reservoir expansion, surface uplift and caprock stress due to pressurized reservoirs (2020)
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  7. Wang, Kun; Sun, WaiChing; Du, Qiang: A cooperative game for automated learning of elasto-plasticity knowledge graphs and models with AI-guided experimentation (2019)
  8. Garipov, T. T.; Tomin, P.; Rin, R.; Voskov, D. V.; Tchelepi, H. A.: Unified thermo-compositional-mechanical framework for reservoir simulation (2018)
  9. Hu, Ran; Hong, Jia-Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhou, Chuang-Bing: Hydraulic hysteresis effects on the coupled flow-deformation processes in unsaturated soils: numerical formulation and slope stability analysis (2018)
  10. Liu, Quansheng; Sun, Lei; Tang, Xuhai; Chen, Lei: Simulate intersecting 3D hydraulic cracks using a hybrid “FE-meshfree” method (2018)
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