HFSM: Hierarchical facial shape modeling algorithm for realistic facial expression animation. We propose a hierarchical 3D facial modeling technique for realistic facial expression animation from the anatomical specification. We analyze the real human face to construct the facial model with a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different kinds of muscle models have been developed to simulate the distribution of the muscle force exerted to the skin due to muscle contraction. The 3D face model incorporates a skull structure which extends the scope of facial motion and facilitates facial muscle construction. The facial muscle construction is achieved by a muscle mapping approach which efficiently locates facial muscles at the anatomically correct positions between the skin and skull layers. To generate facial expressions, the resulting hierarchical facial model is animated by solving the governing dynamic equation. For computational efficiency, we use a localized, semi-implicit integration method in the numerical simulation. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at an interactive rate and synthesizes various realistic facial expressions.

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