Grain

Grain - A Stream Cipher for Constrained Environments. A new stream cipher, Grain, is proposed. The design targets hardware environments where gate count, power consumption and memory is very limited. It is based on two shift registers and a non-linear output function. The cipher has the additional feature that the speed can be increased at the expense of extra hardware. The key size is 80 bits and no attack faster than exhaustive key search has been identified. The hardware complexity and throughput compares favourably to other hardware oriented stream ciphers like E0 and A5/1.


References in zbMATH (referenced in 73 articles )

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  1. Dalai, Deepak Kumar; Pal, Santu; Sarkar, Santanu: A state bit recovery algorithm with TMDTO attack on Lizard and Grain-128a (2022)
  2. Wang, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Tian; Qi, Wen-Feng: A generic method for investigating nonsingular Galois NFSRs (2022)
  3. Wang, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Tian; Qi, Wen-Feng: A necessary and sufficient condition for a class of nonsingular Galois NFSRs (2022)
  4. Yao, Ge; Parampalli, Udaya: Improved transformation algorithms for generalized Galois NLFSRs (2022)
  5. Hao, Yonglin; Leander, Gregor; Meier, Willi; Todo, Yosuke; Wang, Qingju: Modeling for three-subset division property without unknown subset (2021)
  6. Liu, Meicheng; Lu, Xiaojuan; Lin, Dongdai: Differential-linear cryptanalysis from an algebraic perspective (2021)
  7. Li, Yubo; Li, Kangquan; Mesnager, Sihem; Qu, Longjiang: More permutations and involutions for constructing bent functions (2021)
  8. Sinha, Nishant: Internal state recovery of espresso stream cipher using conditional sampling resistance and TMDTO attack (2021)
  9. Tan, Lin; Zhu, Xuanyong; Qi, Wenfeng: Bagua: a NFSR-based stream cipher constructed following confusion and diffusion principles (2021)
  10. Wang, Hong-Yu; Zheng, Qun-Xiong; Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Xin; Qi, Wen-Feng: A new result on irreducible NFSRs with respect to cascade connection (2021)
  11. Wang, Zhongxiao; Zheng, Qunxiong; Zhao, Xiaoxin; Feng, Xiutao: Grain-like structures with minimal and maximal period sequences (2021)
  12. Ye, Chen-Dong; Tian, Tian: An improved degree evaluation method of NFSR-based cryptosystems (2021)
  13. Ye, Chen-Dong; Tian, Tian; Zeng, Fan-Yang: The MILP-aided conditional differential attack and its application to Trivium (2021)
  14. Zhong, Jianghua; Pan, Yingyin; Lin, Dongdai: On Galois NFSRs equivalent to Fibonacci ones (2021)
  15. Liu, Junying; Zheng, Qunxiong; Lin, Dongdai: A new upper bound on the order of affine sub-families of NFSRs (2020)
  16. Mesnager, Sihem; Mandal, Bimal; Tang, Chunming: New characterizations and construction methods of bent and hyper-bent Boolean functions (2020)
  17. Semenov, Alexander; Otpuschennikov, Ilya; Gribanova, Irina; Zaikin, Oleg; Kochemazov, Stepan: Translation of algorithmic descriptions of discrete functions to SAT with applications to cryptanalysis problems (2020)
  18. Wang, Zhongxiao; Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian: Constructing de Bruijn sequences based on a new necessary condition (2020)
  19. Wang, Zhongxiao; Zheng, Qunxiong; Qi, Wenfeng: The cycle structure of (\mathrmNFSR(f^d)) and its applications (2020)
  20. Zhao, Xiao-Xin; Qi, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Jia-Min: Further results on the equivalence between Galois NFSRs and Fibonacci NFSRs (2020)

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