rogue-waves

Extreme superposition: rogue waves of infinite order and the Painlevé-III hierarchy. We study the fundamental rogue wave solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the limit of large order. Using a recently proposed Riemann-Hilbert representation of the rogue wave solution of arbitrary order (k), we establish the existence of a limiting profile of the rogue wave in the large-(k) limit when the solution is viewed in appropriate rescaled variables capturing the near-field region where the solution has the largest amplitude. The limiting profile is a new particular solution of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the rescaled variables -- the rogue wave of infinite order -- which also satisfies ordinary differential equations with respect to space and time. The spatial differential equations are identified with certain members of the Painlevé-III hierarchy. We compute the far-field asymptotic behavior of the near-field limit solution and compare the asymptotic formulas with the exact solution using numerical methods for solving Riemann-Hilbert problems. In a certain transitional region for the asymptotics, the near-field limit function is described by a specific globally defined tritronquée solution of the Painlevé-II equation. These properties lead us to regard the rogue wave of infinite order as a new special function.